•   婦科醫生教你讀懂婦檢結果 

      一名女子懷疑自己“外陰增生”上網“問病”看婦科花掉近2萬元,病未好轉卻被導醫屏蔽了——近日,這一消息引起人們關注。不只是外陰增生,當乳腺增生、盆腔積液、HpV感染、宮頸糜爛……這些結果出現在婦科檢查報告上時,不少女性也會憂心忡忡:我攤上的這到底是什么病、有多嚴重啊?會不會影響生育?有沒有潛在的癌變風險?

      ?經常有女性拿到檢查報告就“望文生義”自己嚇自己,甚至盲目四處投醫,因此“走彎路”的並不少見。

      ?“其實,如果了解它們的真面目,這些看似‘嚇人’的檢查結果,可能並不是什么大事,甚至有的根本就不是病!”就上述這些常見的“嚇人”檢查結果,廣醫三院婦科醫生一一進行了解讀。

      醫學指導/廣州醫科大學附屬第三醫院婦科主任醫師生秀傑、醫師張玉萍

      文/廣州日報全媒體記者翁淑賢通訊員白恬

      HpV感染:不等於宮頸惡變

      對於HpV病毒,很多女性並不陌生。近年來宮頸癌疫苗注射的話題備受關注,大家也多多少少聽說了HpV病毒是引起宮頸癌變的“元凶”。在體檢中,女性一般通過宮頸的防癌篩查,即宮頸液基細胞學和宮頸HpV檢查來進行宮頸癌的篩查。目前國際指南推薦的是HpV篩查作為宮頸癌篩查分流的依據,即根據HpV結果決定是否需進一步的檢查或治療。

      子宮頸檢查或基因檢查及注射預防疫苗是預防的最有效方法。在香港,基因檢查及子宮頸檢查可由家庭醫生、全科醫生或婦科醫生進行,研究證實,定期進行檢查可大大減低患病風險.

      那么,如果HpV篩查發現有HpV感染是不是就意味著患宮頸癌了呢?對此,廣醫三院婦科主任醫師生秀傑分析說,HpV分為低危型和高危型兩種,導致宮頸癌的是高危型的,而低危型的多導致生殖器疣,所以部分醫院宮頸癌篩查只查高危型的HpV病毒——分為HpV16型、HpV18型和其他可引起宮頸癌的常見高危類型。

      生秀傑建議,如發現HpV16型或HpV18型陽性,要做陰道鏡下宮頸活檢;如病理結果顯示沒發生癌前病變或癌變,可以3~6個月後再複查HpV。而其他高危型HpV陽性,需在專科醫生指導下,結合宮頸細胞學結果判斷是否需做宮頸活檢。

      HpV是一種病毒,無特效藥物治療。目前關於HpV是否需要治療也是眾說紛紜,不過對於35歲以下的女性,多數可以通過自身的免疫系統清除HpV,也就是無需治療可自行轉陰。因此,如果有HpV感染也無需過分擔心,聽正規醫院專業醫生的建議防治就行。

      外陰增生:大多數是良性

      ?廣醫三院婦科醫師張玉萍介紹說,外陰增生准確的說法是“外陰鱗狀上皮增生”。不少女性一聽到這個部位“增生”,擔心會惡變。其實,這種增生與外陰瘙癢而反複搔抓有關,絕大多數為良性增生,早期外陰皮膚暗紅或粉紅色,局部可出現角化過度呈白色,晚期則皮膚增厚、色素增加,出現苔蘚樣變,似皮革樣增厚,且粗糙、隆起,嚴重者有抓痕、潰瘍。如果症狀較輕,可通過保持外陰皮膚清潔、幹燥來緩解,忌用刺激性肥皂、洗液等清洗外陰;如果瘙癢難以控制,可局部使用糖皮質激素;如果症狀較重無法緩解,也可采用激光、聚焦超聲等物理治療,一般不建議手術切除。

      如果女性清洗外陰時觸及外陰丘疹、斑塊、贅生物等異常時,建議到正規醫院婦科就診,由專科醫生檢查判斷並給予相應的治療意見。

      盆腔積液:多數生理性無需幹預

      做婦科彩超檢查時,很多女性一看到有“盆腔積液”,心裏就很緊張。別慌!先分清是生理性還是病理性再說。

      生理性盆腔積液:其實盆腔內本來就有液體,大多數時候積液量多小於20mm,做超聲檢查未提示其他異常,本身又沒有腹部不適感,多數是生理性的,無需特別幹預。除非是伴有腹痛、性交痛等下腹不適感,盆腔積液量又較多(大於20mm),考慮盆腔炎可能性,可找婦科醫生咨詢治療。

      病理性盆腔積液:黃體破裂或某些惡性腫瘤可能導致病理性盆腔積液。不過,這時超聲檢查除了顯示盆腔積液外,還會有其他發現。比如黃體破裂會顯示一側附件有包塊或卵巢黃體,醫生會提醒需密切觀察甚至住院治療;如果盆腔有惡性腫瘤,則會出現腫瘤標記物異常升高、大量胸腹水等,這種情況下醫生會提醒需要完善相關檢查以幫助明確診斷、積極治療。

      宮頸糜爛:多是正常生理現象

      張玉萍介紹說,其實國際上早就廢棄了“宮頸糜爛”這個詞,而是以“宮頸柱狀上皮異位”這一生理現象取代它。

      她解釋說,宮頸上皮是由宮頸陰道部的鱗狀上皮和宮頸管的柱狀上皮組成。鱗狀上皮看起來“粉粉嫩嫩、光光滑滑”;而柱狀上皮看起來比較淺薄,血管都能看得清清楚楚,顏色比較嫩紅,像是充血了,俗稱“糜爛”了。所以說“宮頸糜爛”只是宮頸的一種生理現象。

      張玉萍說,如果婦科檢查發現“宮頸糜爛”,首先可以明確它不一定是病,往往只是正常的生理現象。建議有三年或以上的性生活史的女性做宮頸防癌篩查,由醫生根據篩查結果判定是否需進一步治療或檢查。如兩項篩查均提示正常,多數宮頸糜爛是不需要治療的。

      乳腺增生:未提示結節或包塊不要緊

      乳腺增生是一種非常常見、讓女性朋友很擔心的檢查結果。有些人看到乳腺增生,就擔心會發展成乳腺癌。

      對此,張玉萍介紹,如果超聲檢查只是提示“乳腺增生”,未提示結節或包塊,這種情況下不用緊張,不需要特殊幹預的。如果超聲檢查提示乳腺有結節或包塊,再咨詢專科醫生根據具體情況考慮是否有需要做進一步治療。

      一般建議25歲後的女性每年做一次乳腺超聲檢查;如果家裏有直系親屬患過乳腺癌,則每半年檢查一次。

      宮頸囊腫:一般無需特殊處理

      婦科超聲檢查中還有一個是“宮頸囊腫”,一看到“囊腫”兩個字,不少女性又聯想到“腫瘤”,而且又是長在宮頸這個特殊部位,到底有多嚴重啊?

      ?其實,正常的宮頸裏有很多小小的腺體,正常情況下,這些腺體的分泌液體會順著腺管流出去,但如果腺體開口堵塞了,腺體的分泌物流不出去,就會慢慢積累形成囊腫,如果形成在宮頸表面,婦科檢查就會有“宮頸囊腫”的報告提示,但一般不需要特殊處理。

      白內障是一種眼部疾病,嚴重的會導致失明。因此白內障治療要趁早,不可耽擱,白內障嚴重到一定程度還會同時患上青光眼。


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  •   10個上了黑名單的寶寶用品,你還在給你家寶寶用嗎?!

      自從有了小寶寶,媽媽總想把世界上所有最好的東西都給寶寶,可是雖然可供選擇的產品不少,但不代表每樣都適合孩子用。下面這10個上了黑名單的寶寶用品,你還在給你家寶寶用嗎?!有些還是專家反複強調不宜嬰幼兒使用的哦~

      黑榜1號-微量元素檢查

      中國小兒外科創始人之一、中國工程院院士張金哲說,兒童沒有必要一定要進行微量元素檢測,微量元素顧名思義就是人體所必需、但是需要的只是微量,不管多大兒童,只要能夠正常飲食者,均談不上缺乏。一般家長是不用帶孩子進行微量元素檢測的,除非孩子出現明顯消瘦、偏食等臨床症狀。如果想知道孩子營養是否均衡,其實健康體檢中的血紅蛋白檢測就已足夠,血紅蛋白就可以看出孩子是否貧血,而貧血是目前兒童可能出現的症狀。

      加素美嬰兒洗髮沐浴露源自德國,瓶子的壓頭設計方便控制用量,低敏配方蘊含天然洋甘菊精華及維他命B5,有效鎮撫、舒緩及預防寶寶的肌膚不適,而且不含矽靈或誘敏防腐劑,溫和性質讓愛玩水的寶寶盡情享受沐浴的樂趣。

      黑榜2號-骨密度檢查

      骨密度是一項放射性檢查,利用很小劑量的放射線檢測骨骼密度。雖說劑量很小但是對寶寶還是可能會造成一定的輻射,況且生長旺盛階段的寶寶,如果沒有疾病,骨密度偏低意味快速生長過程,並不一定要補鈣,而且過多的鈣會導致寶寶腎髒生理負荷的。正常喂養的孩子,只要補充夠每日生理需求的維生素D,更沒必要用儀器做各種檢測。

      黑榜3號-牛初乳

      現在由於商業原因,牛初乳被炒的很熱,但是兒科學家認為,牛初乳裏雌激素過量,如果不能被孩子正常代謝,會留在身體裏促進性腺發育,導致孩子性早熟。所以大家還是謹慎使用牛初乳吧。

      黑榜4號-寶寶遊泳脖圈

      現在家庭生活都好了,很多寶寶媽媽們都會帶小寶寶去嬰兒店洗澡,但是寶寶太小不能把泳圈套在身體上,所以發明了套脖泳圈,可是寶寶脖子很軟,脖子上還有頸動脈竇,如果壓力過大會導致小寶寶休克的。

      如果大人真想讓小孩體驗遊泳,最好是由大人抱著,用一側前臂拖著嬰兒的臀部。另一只手扶住嬰兒的背部,貼緊大人身體下水。在水中,可以試試只拖著寶寶的臀部,或者雙手抱住腋下,盡量讓寶寶感受玩水的快樂。

      黑榜5號- 優卡丹、好娃娃

      去年5月底,國度藥監局官網正式下發通知,對含“鹽酸金剛烷胺”的非處方藥的闡明書停止了修訂,因該類藥物缺乏重生兒和1歲以下的寶寶平安性和有效性的數據,不巧的時小兒優卡丹和好娃娃這兩種藥裏面就是這類藥物,所以規則1歲內的寶寶禁用優卡丹等藥物,5歲以下寶寶不引薦運用

      黑榜6號-學步帶與學步車

      孩子在坐學步車的時候,往往是馬蹄足的形狀走,長期下來後,一個 是很容易引起孩子的下肢畸形,另外,孩子也容易養成足內翻,或者是足外翻的習慣。走路是自然發育過程,不應過早人為幹預。 這個問題早就專家提出,但是很多家長不以為然,幾乎家家都有一個學步車,沒事的時候把孩子往車上一放,自己就做事去了,這不僅僅是對孩子的發育造成傷害,也有其他的危險

      黑榜7號-1歲以內寶寶食用蜂蜜

      一歲以下寶寶不能吃蜂蜜,因為有肉毒中毒的風險。嬰兒肉毒中毒的早期病征是便秘,繼而出現困倦、喂哺困難、肌肉普遍無力、哭聲微弱。大部分患者均需接受住院治療,但致命的情況較罕見。

      來自德國的加素美嬰兒洋甘菊沖涼液組合,採用性質溫和的天然洋甘菊及植物成分,而且不含矽靈或誘敏防腐劑,不會刺激皮膚,並可以減緩因為乾燥引起的不適,最適合寶寶幼嫩肌膚使用,青蛙包裝可愛療愈,不論送禮或自用都非常適合!

      黑榜8號-炎琥寧等中藥注射劑

      早在2009年9月1日,國家食品藥品監督管理局發布的第23期藥品不良反應信息通報曾指出,穿琥寧注射劑和炎琥寧注射劑的嚴重不良反應事件問題較為突出,使用這兩種注射劑時應嚴格掌握適應症,並謹慎用於兒童患者。中成藥針劑還真多如雙黃連,清開靈,醒腦,細辛腦,喜炎平、炎琥寧,血栓通、參麥注射液、生脈,丹參,銀杏葉提取物、水蛭、黃芪、青蒿、柴胡,莪術油......大家都要小心。

      黑榜9號-嬰幼兒喂葡萄糖

      很多提倡寶寶喝水,不管是奶粉還是母乳喂養的孩子,都盡可能的補充喝水量,但是寶媽反應很多寶寶不願意喝水,於是就提倡用果汁 ,葡糖糖代替水,但是葡萄糖和果汁並不能代替水,孩子對甜味親和力最強,孩子喝了葡萄糖以後就更不愛喝白開水了。

      而有的網友經常地給孩子喝葡萄糖水,有為新生兒退黃;有為不喝白水時作調味品;有為營養素添加。只有低血糖才需口服葡萄糖。葡萄糖作為單糖,腸道內沒有限速酶,口服後會使血糖升高,造成胰腺和腎髒應急,對身體不利。

      黑榜10號-兒童防側睡枕

      目前市場上各種質地各種名目的防側枕還在繼續賣著,很多不明真理的家長還頻頻上當,美國CpSC和FDA警告:不要使用這種保持嬰兒特定睡姿的“防側睡枕”。 該枕在過去的15年內已導致了至少13名嬰兒死亡。此類睡姿定位器的賣點本是保持孩子平臥,防止側翻後俯臥而窒息及猝死。可事與願違:側臥沒防著,孩子無意中趴下更易窒息。 並且也限制嬰兒翻身、視野和追視能力的發展。0至3個月的嬰兒最好不要用枕頭。

      【預防嬰兒皮膚敏感:德國Glysomed Baby的天然保護屏障】要keep住BB肌膚幼嫩唔敏感,秘密就係用Glysomed Baby護理系列咁簡單!有咗天然保護膜,自然無有怕!


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  •   

      肌膚保養似乎已經成為每位女性日常生活中不可避免的美容話題,而相比較於以往流於表面的美容方法,更為系統化的美容管理服務顯然是眾多年輕女性們更願意去選擇的美容服務,new beauty 美容就是這種符合當代女性美容訴求的年輕肌膚管理中心,其相較於傳統的美容護膚,自然是有著許多的與眾不同之處。

      技術更先進。new beauty hk 美容所使用的的各項技術都是行業領先的,如pico way第二代激光皮秒術,elase激光脫毛術,hifu輪廓拉緹都是最先進的無創無痛美容技術,能夠解決女性們的任何美麗問題,恢復時間短,零創面,真正做到美麗零壓力。

      美容專案更細化。new beauty hk 美容的各類專案相比較傳統的美容店來講專案更加細化,從面部提拉,去斑美白,再到脫毛埋線,一站式解決女性朋友們所有的肌膚問題,這是傳統美容所無法做到的。

      服務更專業。除了技術和專案都領先於人外,new beauty 美容的服務也更加專業。以客為首,專業服務,專注用心是new beauty 美容的服務宗旨,在new beauty 女性朋友們不但能夠輕鬆解決美麗問題,還能夠體驗到量身定制的美容護膚療程,是您期待已久的私人肌膚養護專家。


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  • In order to solve many years of hard to cure the extra school lessons, Han Ping thought that it should be in full control. First of all, we should gradually form a set of scientific and comprehensive ways to evaluate students, so that the passage is more pluralistic, "not only looking at the score". At the same time, he also reminded parents to choose suitable schools according to their children's situation. Ezetimibe simvastatin combination therapy Effect could contribute to improved clinical outcomes."If we want to squeeze into a very high school, children may not be able to keep up with them, self-confidence and self-esteem will be hurt, and even psychological problems such as rebellion" will happen.

     

     

     

    Some "crazy training" has a lot to do with the "flicker" of various training institutions. Han Ping put forward that the urgent task to do is to regulate this kind of training institutions in the society.

     

     

    the extra school

     

    At present, there are also many problems in training institutions around the country. There are several units that can be examined and approved, some in business and some in civil affairs or cultural departments. He believes that the regulatory responsibility should be straightened out in the opportunity of the institutional reform.

     

     

     

    At the same time, some training institutions and private schools "secretly ventilated", interest binding, training content and learning behavior must be strictly linked, "the impact and consequences of this situation is very bad".PolyU continues to expand its academic links with those top 100 university ranking asia and top-ranked universities in the world, to create overseas learning opportunities for students.

     

     

     

    Zhu Xiaojin believes that the problem of the confusion of teachers in the outside school training institutions should be focused on. He suggested the establishment of the standards for the access of the teachers of the training institutions and the establishment of a professional title system for the teachers of the training institutions. At the same time, teachers in training institutions should be required to get the qualification certificate of the industry admittance, and the grade and professional title system of such teachers should be established, so that they can have career development direction and goal.ETG develops 3D traffic solution as a People counting system of retail stores in Hong Kong and offers flexible metrics to apply on collected data like multi-zone counting and height filtering for accurate analytics.

     

     

     

    "In fact, the training is not" great scourges ", is not the complete ban, it exists on the youth individual growth and all-round development does have a complementary role outside of the school." Han Ping suggested that when supervising extracurricular classes, schools and parents should not only focus on scores. "Children have some interest and hobbies in sports and art, they will benefit from lifelong".


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  •  

    2018 national graduate entrance examination exam today, according to the latest data the Ministry of education, 2018 postgraduate applicants appeared again new growth, reached 2 million 380 thousand, compared with 2017 increase of 18.4% PubMed 2 million 10 thousand candidates. polyu exchange offers placement programmes / internship opportunities for students to widen their horizon and to obtain valuable working experience before graduation.The number and growth rate of the entrance examination for postgraduate entrance examination has reached a record high. The emergence of this change is closely related to the promotion of China's economic and cultural hard and soft strength. People's attention and demand for higher education will continue to improve in the future. At the same time, the contradiction between the number of entrance examination and the enrollment plan is becoming more and more obvious. What changes will take place at the beginning of the entrance examination and the re examination? Mr. Gan yuan, the general manager of the new orient online domestic examination department, makes the following analysis for all of us.

     

    Examination learning is no longer a purely utilitarian behavior, and examination oriented education enters the consumption era

     

    With the improvement of the hard and soft strength of Chinese economy and culture, the attention and demand for higher education are increasing. Since 2016 postgraduate entrance examination to 2018 postgraduate entrance examination, the number of candidates for entrance exams for postgraduate entrance examination has been rising continuously for 3 years, and its growth rate has increased year by year. Among them, the number of applicants in Sichuan, Yunnan and Guangxi has increased by 46%, 29% and 27% respectively, ranking the top in the country. At the same time, the proportion of female students to graduate students has been increasing. From 2007 to 2016, the proportion of female students has increased from 48% to 55%, and girls have gradually become the mainstream group of graduate students.

     

    According to the Ministry of Education released before the data is expected in the 2018 national college graduates 8 million 200 thousand people, an increase of 250 thousand over last year, will hit a record high. Effect of the severe employment situation and the economic and cultural soft power promotion after the slow employment trend, will promote the "entrance examination fever" and "an important consideration, enhance education, engaged in academic research, after replacing professional undergraduates" is your choice. Considering the multi dimension, it is still a hot choice for college graduates.

     

    But with the post 95 candidates joining the postgraduate entrance examination, a large number of examinees no longer choose the postgraduate entrance examination for purely utilitarian purposes. More of the new generation candidates are willing to pay for the "spiritual ideal" and "life pursuit". Some of the candidates have even done the preparation of many aspects, such as postgraduate entrance examination, public examination and studying abroad, and the exam oriented cbbc education has entered the consumption age.

     

    The growth rate of previous candidates is 21.5%, and lifelong learning is becoming the mainstream

     

    According to the Ministry of education data, 2018 of the candidates who took the entrance examination for postgraduate entrance examination were 1 million 310 thousand candidates, an increase of 180 thousand over last year, an increase of 15.9%, and 1 million 70 thousand candidates for the past year, an increase of 190 thousand over last year, an increase of 21.5%, which is nearly 6 percentage points higher than that of the candidates.

     

    At the same time, the employment environment of globalization and Internet has pushed academic qualifications into the bottleneck of quality employment, promotion and salary increase, and more and more people in charge need to learn to "charge". At the same time, the development of Internet technology promotes the continuous development of online education market. The online counseling course represented by New Oriental online breaks the restrictions of time, geography and so on, which satisfies the two needs of working people. At the same time, online classroom's infinite playback, support caching, fragmented learning and other characteristics provide great convenience for examinees, and also promote the idea of lifelong learning. Learning is no longer a difficult choice of high time threshold and high material cost, but it presents a trend of nationalized and life-long.

     

    For 2 years, the master candidate of professional master's degree has become a highly cost-effective choice.

     

    According to the research data of Beijing Municipal Education Examination in Beijing apply for admissions unit candidates, 146 thousand and 100 candidates of academic master (abbreviation: Master), accounting for 45.3%, 176 thousand and 700 people apply for the master (referred to as: Special Master), accounting for 54.7% of the proportion of candidates, special master for 2 years master. Relative to Xueshuo, special master academic short, trainingobjectives focus on practice, employment is expected to better, and the government oriented in the professional master of higher education policy, promote the special master training scale expansion and enhance the degree of recognition. For a lot of students who want to improve the competitiveness and comprehensive ability of unintentional academic research, it is no doubt that it is a cost-effective choice.

     

    At the same time, this year is the second year of the part-time graduate student enrollment. The total number of 43 thousand and 500 candidates in Beijing has been applied for the part-time postgraduate examination,PartnerNet is a Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) trade website providing news on Hong Kong tourism website and connecting you with trade partners around the world. which is 14.8% higher than that of the 2017 postgraduate entrance examination. The part-time graduate student is awarded the degree certificate and diploma certificate, and only in the way of learning is part-time, the employer of the difference degree of concern is not high, which makes many students and in-service professionals to charge choose part-time graduate students, achieve school work two error.

     

    Study of increasingly fierce competition, retest ready sooner rather than later

     

    From 2007 to 2016, the graduate enrollment plan increased by only 6%, far below the increase in the number of applicants, and the competition for graduate students became more intense. In some colleges, there are professional applicants for examination. Only Beijing has 12 enrollment units such as Peking University and Renmin University of China. The number of applicants is over 10000, and some colleges and universities have reported more than 40:1.


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